Recent Publications

Peer-Reviewed Publications

  1. Two-neutron sequential decay of 24O
    M. D. Jones, N. Frank, T. Baumann, J. Brett, J. Bullaro, P. A. De Young, J. E. Finck, K. Hammerton, J. Hinnefeld, Z. Kohley, A. N. Kuchera, J. Pereira, A. Rabeh, W. F. Rogers, J. K. Smith, A. Spyrou, S. L. Stephenson, K. Stiefel, M. Tuttle-Timm, R. G. T. Zegers, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 92, 051306 (2015)

  2. Selective population of unbound states in 10Li
    J. K. Smith, T. Baumann, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, N. Frank, J. Hinnefeld, Z. Kohley, B. Luther, B. Marks, A. Spyrou, S. L. Stephenson, M. Thoennessen, S. J. Williams,
    Nuclear Physics A, V940 pp235-241 (2015)

  3. Population of 13Be in a nucleon exchange reaction
    B. R. Marks, P. A. DeYoung, J. K. Smith, T. Baumann, J. Brown, N. Frank, J. Hinnefeld, M. Hoffman, M. D. Jones, Z. Kohley, A. N. Kuchera, B. Luther, A. Spyrou, S. Stephenson, C. Sullivan, M. Thoennessen, N. Viscariello, S. J. Williams
    Physical Review C 92, 054320 (2015)

  4. Unbound excited states of the N=16 closed shell nucleus 24O
    W. F. Rogers, S. Garrett, A. Grovom, R. E. Anthony, A. Aulie, A. Barker, T. Baumann, J. J. Brett, J. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, A. Hamann, R. A. Haring-Kaye, J. Hinnefeld, A. R. Howe, N. T. Islam, M. D. Jones, A. N. Kuchera, J. Kwiatkowski, E. M. Lunderberg, B. Luther, D. A. Meyer, S. Mosby, A. Palmisano, R. Parkhurst, A. Peters, J. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, S. L. Stephenson, M. Strongman, B. Sutherland, N. E. Taylor, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 92, 034316 (2015)

  5. Further insights into the reaction 14Be(C2H,X)10He
    M. D. Jones, Z. Kohley, T. Baumann, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, R. A. Haring-Kaye, A. N. Kuchera, B. Luther, S. Mosby, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, S. L. Stephenson, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 91, 044312 (2015)

  6. Three-body correlations in the ground-state decay of 26O
    Z. Kohley, T. Baumann, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, B. Luther, E. Lunderberg, M. Jones, S. Mosby, J. K. Smith, A. Spyrou, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 91, 034323 (2015)

  7. Search for unbound 15Be states in the 3n+12Be channel
    A. N. Kuchera, A. Spyrou, J. K. Smith, T. Baumann, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, M. D. Jones, Z. Kohley, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 91, 017304 (2015)

  8. Low-lying neutron unbound states in 12Be
    J. K. Smith, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, S. Casarotto, P. A. De Young, N. Frank, J. Hinnefeld, M. Hoffman, M. D. Jones, Z. Kohley, B. Luther, B. Marks, N. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, S. L. Stephenson, M. Thoennessen, N. Viscariello, S. J. Williams,
    Physical Review C 90, 024309 (2014)

  9. Determining the 7Li(n,gamma) cross section via Coulomb dissociation of 8Li
    R. Izsak, A. Horvath, A. Kiss, Z. Seres, A. Galonsky, C. A. Bertulani, Z. Fulop, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, K. Ieki, C. Bordeanu, N. Carlin, M. Csanad, F. Deak, P. DeYoung, N. Frank, T. Fukuchi, A. Gade, D. Galaviz, C. R. Hoffman, W. A. Peters, H. Schelin, M. Thoennessen, G. I. Veres,
    Physical Review C 88, 065808 (2013)

  10. Exploiting neutron-rich radioactive ion beams to constrain the symmetry energy
    Z. Kohley, G. Christian, T. Baumann, P.A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, M. Jones, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 88, 041601 (2013)

  11. First observation of 15Be
    J. Snyder, T. Baumann, G. Christian, R. A. Haring-Kaye, P. A. DeYoung, Z. Kohley, B. Luther, M. Mosby, S. Mosby, A. Simon, J. K. Smith, A. Spyrou, S. Stephenson, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 88, 031303 (2013)

  12. Observation of a low-lying neutron-unbound state in 19C
    M. Thoennessen, S. Mosby, N. S. Badger, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, M. Bennett, J. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, M. Gardner, E. A. Hook, B. Luther, D. A. Meyer, M. Mosby, W. F. Rogers, J. K. Smith, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman,
    Journal of Nuclear Physics A, 2013.05.001 (2013)

  13. Search for 21C and constraints on 22C
    S. Mosby, N. S. Badger, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, M. Bennett, J. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, M. Gardner, J. D. Hinnefeld, E. A. Hook, E. M. Lunderberg, B. Luther, D. A. Meyer, M. Mosby, G. F. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen,
    Journal of Nuclear Physics A, 2013.04.004 (2013)

  14. Study of Two-Neutron Radioactivity in the Decay of 26O
    Z. Kohley, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, M. Jones, E. Lunderberg, B. Luther, S. Mosby, T. Nagi, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review Letters 110, 152501 (2013)

  15. First observation of the 13Li ground state
    Z. Kohley, E. Lunderberg, P. A. DeYoung, A. Volya, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, G. Christian, N. L. Cooper, N. Frank, A. Gade, C. Hall, J. Hinnefeld, B. Luther, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 87, 011304 (2013)

  16. Comment on "First Observation of Ground State Dineutron Decay: 16Be" Reply
    A. Spyrou, Z. Kohley, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, E. Lunderberg, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, A. Volya,
    Physical Review Letters 109, 239202 (2012)

  17. Unresolved Question of the 10He Ground State Resonance
    Z. Kohley, J. Snyder, T Baumann, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, R. A. Haring-Kaye , M. Jones, E. Lunderberg, B. Luther, S. Mosby, A. Simon, J. K. Smith, A. Spyrou, S. L. Stephenson, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review Letters 109, 232501 (2012)

  18. Neutron unbound states in 28Ne and 25F
    J. K. Smith, T. Baumann, B. A. Brown, G. Christian, J. E. Finck, C. R. Hoffman, Z. Kohley, S. Mosby, J. F. Novak, S. J. Quinn, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen,
    Physical Review C 86, 057302 (2012)

  19. Spectroscopy of neutron-unbound 27F,28F
    G. Christian, N. Frank, S. Ash, T. Baumann, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, A. Gade, G. F. Grinyer, B. Luther, M. Mosby, S. Mosby, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, M. Warren, D. Weisshaar, A. Wersal,
    Physical Review C 85, 034327 (2012)

  20. First Observation of Ground State Dineutron Decay: 16Be
    A. Spyrou, Z. Kohley, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, E. Lunderberg, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, A. Volya,
    Physical Review Letters 108, 102501(2012)

  21. Exploring the Low-Z Shore of the Island of Inversion at N=19
    G. Christian, N. Frank, S. Ash, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, A. Gade, G. F. Grinyer, A. Grovom, J. D. Hinnefeld, E. M. Lunderberg, B. Luther, M. Mosby, S. Mosby, T. Nagi, G. F. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, M. Warren, D. Weisshaar, A. Wersal,
    Physical Review Letters 108, 032501(2012)

  22. Evidence for the ground-state resonance of 26O
    E. Lunderberg, P. A. DeYoung, Z. Kohley, H. Attanayake, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, G. Christian, D. Divaratne, S. M. Grimes, A. Haagsma, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, B. Luther, S. Mosby, T. Nagy, G. F. Peaslee, A. Schiller, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman, and M. Thoennessen
    Physical Review Letters 108, 142503 (2012)

  23. First Observation of Ground State Dineutron Decay: 16Be
    A. Spyrou, Z. Kohley, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, E. Lunderberg, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen,and A. Volya
    Physical Review Letters 108, 102501 (2012)

  24. Exploring the Low-Z Shore of the Island of Inversion at N = 14
    G. Christian, N. Frank, S. Ash, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, A. Gade, G. F. Grinyer, A. Grovom, J. D. Hinnefeld, E. M. Lunderberg, B. Luther, M. Mosby, S. Mosby, T. Nagi, G. F. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, M. Warren, D. Weisshaar, and A. Wersal
    Physical Review Letters 108, 032501 (2012)

  25. Nuclear Structure at and Beyond the Neutron Drip Line
    T. Baumann, A. Spyrou, and M. Thoennessen
    Rep. Prog. Phys. 75, 036301 (2012)

  26. Search for the 15Be Ground State
    A. Spyrou, J. K. Smith, T. Baumann, B. A. Brown, J. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, N. Frank, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, and J. A. Tostevin
    Physical Review C 84, 044309 (2011)

  27. Neutron-unbound states in 25,26F
    N. Frank, D. Albertson, J. Bailey, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, A. Gade, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, M. Kasperczyk, B. Luther, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller, A. Smith, M. Thoennessen, and J. A. Tostevin
    Phy. Rev. C 84, 037302 (2011)

  28. Neutron knockout of 12Be populating neutron-unbound states in 11Be
    W. A. Peters, T. Baumann, B. A. Brown, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, K. L. Jones, J.-L. Lecouey, B. Luther, G. F. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, A. Schiller, M. Thoennessen, J. A. Tostevin, and K. Yoneda
    Physical Review C 83, 057304 (2011)

  29. Observation of a two-neutron cascade from a resonance in 24O
    C. R. Hoffman, T. Baumann, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finc6, N. Frank, J. D. Hinnefeld, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, W. F. Rogers, A. Schiller, J. Snyder, A. Spyrou3, S. L. Tabor, and M. Thoennessen
    Physical Review C 83, 031303(R) (2011)

  30. First observation of excited states in 12Li
    C.C. Hall, E.M. Lunderberg, P.A. DeYoung, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, G. Blanchon, A. Bonaccorso, B.A. Brown, J. Brown, G. Christianson, D.H. Denby, J.E. Finck, N. Frank, A. Gade, J. Hinnefeld, C.R. Hoffman, B. Luther, S.M. Mosby,W.A. Peters, A. Spyrou, M. Thoennessen
    Physical Review C 81 (2010) 021302(R).

  31. First evidence for a virtual 18B ground state
    A. Spyrou, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, G. Blanchon, A. Bonaccorso, E. Breitbach, J. Brown, G. Christian, A. DeLine, P.A. DeYoung, J.E. Finck, N. Frank, S. Mosby, W.A. Peters, A. Russel, A. Schiller, M.J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen
    Phys. Lett. B 683, 129 (2010)

  32. Disappearance of the N = 14 shell
    M. J. Strongman, A. Spyrou, C. R. Hoffman, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, S. Mosby, W. F. Rogers, G. F. Peaslee, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller, S. L. Tabor, and M. Thoennessen
    Physical Review C 80 021302 (2009)

  33. Evidence for a doubly magic 24O
    C. R. Hoffman, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, G. Christian, D. H. Denby, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, J. Hinnefeld, S. Mosby, W. A. Peters, W. F. Rogers, A. Schiller, M. J. Scott, A. Spyrou, S. L. Tabor, M. Thoennessen, P. J. Voss (MoNA Collaboration)
    Phys. Lett. B 672, 17 (2009)

  34. Ground State Energy and Width of 7He from 8Li Proton Knockout
    D.H. Denby, P.A. DeYoung, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, E. Breitbach, J. Brown, N. Frank, A. Gade, C.C. Hall, J. Hinnefeld, C.R. Hoffman, R. Howes, R.A. Jenson, B. Luther, S.M. Mosby, C.W. Olson, W.A. Peters, A. Schiller, A. Spyrou, and M. Thoennessen
    Physical Review C 78 044303 (2008)

  35. Neutron decay spectroscopy of neutron-rich oxygen isotopes
    N. Frank, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B.A. Brown, J. Brown, P.A. DeYoung, J.E. Finck, A. Gade, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, J.-L. Lecouey, B. Luther, W.A. Peters, H. Scheit, A. Schiller, M. Thoennessen, and J. Tostevin
    Nuclear Physics A813 199 (2008)

  36. Determination of the N = 16 shell closure at the oxygen drip line
    C. R. Hoffman, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, G. Christian, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, J. Hinnefeld,\R. Howes, P. Mears, E. Mosby, S. Mosby, J. Reith, B. Rizzo, W. F. Rogers, G. Peaslee, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller,M. J. Scott, S. L. Tabor, M. Thoennessen, P. J. Voss, and T. Williams (MoNA Collaboration)
    Physical Review Letters 100 (2008) 152502

  37. Big Physics at Small Places: The Mongol Horde Model of Undergraduate Research
    P. J. Voss, J. E. Finck, R. H. Howes, J. Brown, T. Baumann, A. Schiller, M. Thoennessen, P. A. DeYoung,G. F. Peaslee, J. Hinnefeld, B. Luther, P. V. Pancella, W. F. Rogers
    Journal of College Teaching & Learning 5 (2008) 37–46

  38. Production of nuclei in neutron unbound states via primary fragmentation of 48Ca
    G. Christian, W. A. Peters, D. Absalon, D. Albertson, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, E. Breitbach, J. Brown, P. L. Cole, D. Denby, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, A. Fritsch, C. Hall, A. M. Hayes, J. Hinnefeld, C. R. Hoffman, R. Howes, B. Luther, E. Mosby, S. Mosby, D. Padilla, P. V. Pancella, G. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, A. Schiller, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen, L. O. Wagner
    Nuclear Physics A 801 (2008) 101–113

  39. Selective population and neutron decay of an excited state of 23O
    A. Schiller, N. Frank, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, A. Gade, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, J.-L. Lecouey, B. Luther, W. A. Peters, H. Scheit, M. Thoennessen, J. A. Tostevin
    Physical Review Letters 99 (2007) 112501

  40. Fabrication of a modular neutron array: A collaborative approach to undergraduate research
    R. H. Howes, T. Baumann, M. Thoennessen, J. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. Finck, J. Hinnefeld, K. W. Kemper, B. Luther, P. V. Pancella, G. F. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, and S. Tabor
    Am. J. Phys. 73 (2005) 122

  41. Construction of a modular large-area neutron detector for the NSCL
    T. Baumann, J. Boike, J. Brown, M. Bullinger, J. P. Bychoswki, S. Clark, K. Daum, P. A. DeYoung, J. V. Evans, J. Finck, N. Frank, A. Grant, J. Hinnefeld, G. W. Hitt, R. H. Howes, B. Isselhardt, K. W. Kemper, J. Longacre, Y. Lu, B. Luther, S. T. Marley, D. McCollum, E. McDonald, U. Onwuemene, P. V. Pancella, G. F. Peaslee, W. A. Peters, M. Rajabali, J. Robertson, W. F. Rogers, S. L. Tabor, M. Thoennessen, E. Tryggestad, R. E. Turner, P. J. VanWylen, N. Walker
    Nucl. Inst. and Meth. A 543 (2005) 517–527

  42. MoNA—The Modular Neutron Array
    B. Luther, T. Baumann, M. Thoennessen, J. Brown, P. DeYoung, J. Finck, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, K. Kemper, P. Pancella, G. Peaslee, W. Rogers, S. Tabor
    Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 505 (2003) 33–35

  43. Using passive converters to enhance detection efficiency of 100-MeV neutrons
    T. Baumann, H. Ikeda, M. Kurokawa, M. Miura, T. Nakamura, Y. Nishi, S. Nishimura, A. Ozawa, T. Sugimoto, I. Tanihata, M. Thoennessen
    Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 505 (2003) 25–28

Conference Proceedings

  1. Nuclear structure physics with MoNA-LISA
    S. L. Stephenson, J. A. Brown, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. H. Frank, J. D. Hinnefeld, R. A. Kaye, B. A. Luther, G. F. Peaslee, D. A. Meyer, W. F. Rogers and the MoNA Collaboration,
    Conference Proceedings of the XIX International Seminar of Neutrons with Nuclei, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Russia, (2012) 138-144.

  2. Exploring the neutron dripline two neutrons at a time: The first observations of the 26O and 16Be ground state resonances
    Z. Kohley, A. Spyrou, E. Lunderberg, P. A. DeYoung, H. Attanayake, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, B. A. Brown, G. Christian1, D. Divaratne, S. M. Grimes, A. Haagsma, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, B. Luther, S. Mosby, T. Nagi, G. F. Peaslee, W. A. Peters, A. Schiller, J. K. Smith, J. Snyder, M. J. Strongman, M. Thoennessen,
    Journal of Physics: Conference Series 420, (2013) 1-12.

  3. Efficiency of the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA)
    W. A. Peters, T. Baumann, G. A. Christian, D. Denby, P. A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, N. Frank, C. C. Hall, J. Hinnefeld, A. Schiller, M. J. Strong- man, and M. Thoennessen Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry CAARI 2008,
    AIP Conference Proceedings 1099, 807 (2009)

  4. Population of Neutron Unbound States Via Two-Proton Knockout Reactions
    N. Frank, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, A. Gade, J.-L. Lecouey, W. A. Peters, H. Scheit, A. Schiller, M. Thoennessen, J. Brown, P. DeYoung, J.E. Finck, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, and B. Luther,
    Proceedings of the 9th International Spring Seminar on Nuclear Physics, Changing Facets of Nuclear Structure, edited by A. Covello, p. 23, World Scientific (2008)

  5. Observation of the First Excited State in 23O
    N. Frank, A. Schiller, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, P.A. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, A. Gade, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, J.-L. Lecouey, B. Luther, W.A. Peters, H. Scheit, and M. Thoennessen,
    Proceedings of the 23rd Winter Workshop on Nuclear Dynamics, edited by W. Bauer, R. Bellwied and J.W. Harris, p.187, EP Systema, Budapest, Hungary (2008 )

  6. Exploring Neutron-Rich Oxygen Isotopes with MoNA
    W.A. Peters, N. Frank, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, P. DeYoung, A. Gade, J.E. Finck, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, J.-L. Lecouey, B. Luther, H. Scheit, A. Schiller, and M. Thoennessen,
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Proton Emitting Nuclei and Related Topics, PROCON07, edited by L. Ferreira, AIP Conference Proceedings 961, 143 (2007)

  7. Can the neutron capture cross sections by measured with Coulomb dissociation?
    A. Horvath, K. Ieki, A. Kiss, A. Galonsky, M. Thoennessen, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, C. Bordeanu, N. Carlin, M. Csanad, F. Deak, P. DeYoung, N. Frank, T. Fukuchi, Zs. Fülöp, A. Gade, D. R. Galaviy, A. Galonskz, C. Hoffman, R. Iysak, W. A. Peters. H. Schelin, A. Schiller, R. Sugo, Y. Seres, and G. Veres
    Eur. Phys. J. A27, s01, 217

  8. First Results from MoNA
    A. Schiller, T. Baumann, D. Bazin, J. Brown, P. DeYoung, N. Frank, A. Gade, J. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, R. A. Kryger, J.-L. Lecouey, B. Luther, W. A. Peters, J. R. Terry, M. Thoennessen, and K. Yoneda,
    Proceedings of the International Conference on Frontiers in Nuclear Structure, Astrophysics, and Reactions (FINUSTAR), Kos, Greece, 12–17 September 2005; AIP Conf. Proc. 831, 92 (2006)

  9. MONA: The Modular Neutron Array at the NSCL
    T. Baumann, J. A. Brown, P. DeYoung, J. E. Finck, J. D. Hinnefeld, R. Howes, K. W. Kemper, B. A. Luther, P. V. Pancella, G. F. Peaslee, W. F. Rogers, S. L. Tabor, and M. Thoennessen,
    Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on the Application of Accelerators in Research and Industry CAARI 2002, AIP Conf. Proc. 680, 554 (2003)